Constituency Development Goals

(District - Mehsana)

(State - Gujarat)

(Lok Sabha Constituencies - Mehsana, Patan)

Overview: With a population of 1,837,892 Mehsana accounts for 3.63 percent of the population of Gujarat. 22.40 percent of the population lives in towns and cities. The three largest cities or town in the district are Mahesana, Visnagar and Kadi. Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes form 157,572 and 8.58 percent of the population respectively.

The three largest scheduled caste groups are Bhambi , Mahyavansi and Senva . The three largest scheduled tribe groups are Bhil , Patelia and Generic Tribes .

60.66 percent of the district's population is in the working age group of 15-59 years. The district ranks 193 among 591 districts of India in terms of proportion of population in working age group (a higher rank reflects a good performance). An inclusive growth process and employment generation have been accorded high priority in the XIth five year plan. Specific action plans need to be tailored for every district depending on the size, level of urbanization and educational attainment of the workforce.

The larger the elderly population the greater would be the need for social support for the elderly. 7.88 percent of the district's population is over the age of 59 years.

An often used indicator to capture the extent of discrimination against the girl child is the child sex ratio. In this district, the sex ratio, i.e. the number of girls per 1000 boys, among children in the age group 0-6 years is 800. The district ranks 576 among 591 districts of India (a higher rank reflects a good performance). Ideally the sex ratio at birth should be between 943 and 954 and can be used as a thumb rule to measure the extent of gender discrimination in the district. Addressing the issue of sex selective abortion and female infanticide needs to be given high priority in districts with a sex ratio far from the norm of 943 girls per 1000 boys.

Socio-Economic Status: One aspect of living conditions in the district is the type of dwelling that households reside in. 4.3 percent of households live in a temporary structure while 21 percent of households live in semi-permanent structure. The district ranks 419 among 591 districts of India in terms of percentage of household living a temporary structure (a higher rank reflects a poor performance).

An indicator of the level of deprivation in the district is the proportion of households without any of the following: radio, television, telephone, bicycle, scooter, car or a bank account. 44.2 percentage of households do not have any of the above mentioned goods and services. The district ranks 120 among 593 districts of India , in this indicator (a higher rank reflects a good performance).

317,500 of household in this district have a bank account, a proxy for the extent of financial intermediation. The district ranks 138 among 593 districts of India in terms of extent of financial intermediation (a higher rank reflects a good performance).

Access to the outside world is important. Improved access and connectivity can contribute to improving livelihoods. As part of a poverty reduction strategy, the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, aims at improving connectivity in rural habitations. The district ranks 226, 129, 172 among 591 districts of India in terms of percentage of villages having paved approach road, bus services, and post, telegraph and telephone facility.

Education and Health Outcomes: District level estimates of incidence of poverty are not available. Instead, we can examine outcomes along the following non income dimensions of well being: education and health. It is not necessary that with a decline in incidence of poverty there would be an automatic improvement along these dimensions. The reason for this is that,

"Poverty line derived from personal consumption patterns and levels do not take into account items of social consumption such as basic education and health, drinking water supply, sanitation, environmental standards, etc. in terms of normative requirements or effective access" (p.11 Government of India 1993).

Educational Attainment: The overall literacy rate in the district is 75.22. The male and female literacy rate are respectively 86.2, 63.65. The district ranks 81 and 144 among all districts of India in terms of male and female literacy (a higher rank reflects a good performance). However, the level of literacy does not reflect educational attainment.

The total number of years of schooling that an Indian boy or girl can expect to receive in the future is only 9.8 years. Even this average is an overestimate because of grade repetition.

India has a relatively young population. It is important to invest in improving level of educational attainment. Over the next five years, a concerted effort needs to be made to improve the number of children finishing middle school. With 8.7 percent of its population completing middle school, Mehsana ranks 209 among 590 districts of India.

Rural School Infrastructure: Central to the ability to increase the level of educational attainment is ease of access to schools. Of the 593 villages, 99.3 percent have a primary school, 46.5 percent have a secondary or senior secondary school and 0.8 percent have a college.

The Government of India's avowed objective is to ensure that all children go to primary school. In the event that we do achieve this target, it will be important to ensure that every village also has a middle school and a secondary school. .

Reproductive Health: Of the estimated total of 536,000 maternal deaths worldwide, in 2005, India accounted for an estimated total of 117,000 maternal deaths. The probability that a 15-year-old Indian woman will die eventually from a maternal cause is 1 in 70 as compared to 1 in 1300 in China. The Maternal Mortality Ratio in India is estimated to be 45 per 100,000 births.

The multiple factors that contribute to the unacceptably high number of maternal deaths are viz. prevalence of marriage below the legal age, inadequate antenatal and postnatal care, and absence of skilled personnel at the time of child birth.

In Mehsana, 37.2 percent of girls marry before the legal age of 18 years. In order to tackle the problem of child marriage, in addition to compulsory registration of marriages, information and education campaigns also need to be initiated in the district.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends at least four antenatal care visits throughout the pregnancy. It is widely accepted that the number of antenatal visits by a pregnant woman determines where the woman delivers her child. In Mehsana, 58.2 percent of women made at least 3 visits for antenatal care.

The more antenatal visits, the higher the chance of the birth occurring in a health facility or in the presence of a skilled personnel. In Mehsana, 80.7 percent of women delivered in an institutional facility. It is important to increase this average. It is estimated that 52 percent of current maternal deaths worldwide can be averted by providing access to essential obstetric care.

Awareness of HIV-AIDS: The proportion of men and women aware of HIV-AIDS was 76.9, 46.7 respectively. In terms of awareness of HIV-AIDS among men Mehsana ranks 277 among the 592 districts of India and ranks 315 in terms of awareness of HIV-AIDS among women. (Higher the Rank, laser the awareness about the HIV-AIDS).

Child Health: In Mehsana 54.3 percentage of children, in the age group 12-13 months received full immunization while 1.4 did not receive any immunization. The district ranks 229 in terms of percentage of children receiving full immunization (a higher rank reflects a good performance) and ranks 464 in terms of percentage of children receiving no immunization (a higher rank reflects a poor performance).

Rural Health Infrastructure: Of the 593 villages, 7.9 percent have a primary health centre while 45.9 percent have a primary health sub centre. Mehsana ranks 165, 86 in terms of percentage of villages having a primary health centre and primary health sub centre.

In order to improve reproductive and child health indicators it is necessary not only to ensure that 100 percent of villages have a primary health sub centre but adequate medical supplies are available in each centre.

Data Sources:

  • District Information System for Education
  • Census of India - 2001
  • National Rural Health Mission

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